Vladimir Andreyevich Markov (18711897)

Alternative spelling: Markoff
 Markov, V. A., O funktsiyakh,
naimeneye
uklonyayushchikhsya ot nulya v dannom promezhutke [On functions which
deviate least from zero in a given interval], 1892. This was a
preprint/treatise from the Department of Applied Mathematics, Imperial
St.Petersburg University. It was translated into German, with a short
foreword by Bernstein, and appeared as: Über Polynome, die in einem
gegebenen Intervalle möglichst wenig von Null abweichen, Math.
Ann. 77 (1916), 213258 (see also at GDZ).
The paper contains the proof of the Markov inequality for higher
derivatives of algebraic polynomials. The appendix of V. A. Gusev in the
book of E. V. Voronovskaja titled "The Functional Method and its
Applications", Vol. 28 of Translations of Mathematical Monographs of the
AMS, 1970, reproduces the final (and most essential) part of Markov's
proof almost identically (even the letters in formulae are the same).
Vladimir
Andreyevich Markov was a younger halfbrother of Andrey Andreyevich
Markov.
This paper was published while he was a 21 year old student at the
St.Petersburg University. He died at the age of 25 (of
tuberculosis).